Below you will find some selected results of the project

Year three

Evaluation of pilot demonstration and policy recommendations & briefing (D 5.2)

This deliverable gives a detailed view of the evaluation of the DyMoN pilot demonstration in Salzburg, Austria (“Science City Aktiv Mobil”), including statistical analysis of effects of situation-aware digital nudging and questionnaire feedback of participants. Furthermore, it includes the DyMoN policy recommendations and a policy briefing that are based on a review of the literature on related topics and the project’s own empirical research and experiences. The deliverable is connected to other deliverables that provide more details on the DyMoN approach, tools and methods: The “Nudging Review” (D2.1a) explains the theoretical foundations of the behavioural interventions that were used in a functional proof of concept and the pilot demonstration. The deliverable “Nudging Repository” (D2.2a) describes the large set of nudges some of which were tested in the pilot demonstration. “DyMoN Data Hub, Tools and Data Processing Model” (D3.1) presents the structure and technical implementation of the Data Hub for situation-aware nudges and describes the data integrated for such nudges. “DyMoN Proof of Concept demonstration” (D4.1) includes a more detailed description of the pilot demonstration in Salzburg, including lessons learned and suggestions for good practices. The “Evaluation Plan” (D5.1) provides the methods for the evaluation of the pilot, including the questionnaires for the participants.

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DyMoN policy briefing

Cities are challenged to effectively contribute to climate and environmental targets regarding CO2 emissions, air quality, pollutants, and noise from urban mobility. The DyMoN project proposes that cities use digital nudging to promote more sustainable mobility of citizens (i.e., walk, cycle, public transport). The project developed and trialled a novel approach of such nudging that applies behaviour change techniques in combination with situation awareness. Such awareness considers the users’ proximity to cycling routes, public transport stops, traffic situation, weather forecast, and other available data. The DyMoN recommendations concern city policies and plans for sustainable mobility, behaviour change methods for promoting use of sustainable mobility modes, supporting ICT and data services, and related legal and ethical issues. Stakeholders in sustainable mobility addressed are city policy makers, managers of mobility infrastructure and services, providers of other services (e.g., behavioural intervention methods, ICT and data services), and citizens who use such services.

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DyMoN proof of concept demonstrations (D4.1)

The document describes the proof of concept activities that were carried out in Salzburg, Austria, and in Uppsala, Sweden. In Salzburg, the integrative capability of the situation-aware nudges was demonstrated by using it with a mobile application to investigate the effects of digital nudges on sustainable mobility behaviours, specifically, commuting. In Uppsala, an international hackathon was organised with the aim of finding solutions for sustainable development and enabling safe, clean and affordable sustainable mobility, using digital nudging as a tool for effective changes.

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Handbook: Digital nudging for sustainable mobility

The handbook “Digital nudging for sustainable mobility” offers a new framework for thinking about changing mobility behaviour in a more holisitic way. We expand on existing examples by identifying barriers and facilitators of individual behaviour using a model of behaviour change, which helps tackle the underlying problem, rather than assuming or guessing what might work. We will also help you realize how digital tools can be use to change behaviour, and that data can help these tools to be more effective by incorporating current situations and context.

Digitally enabled behaviour change for sustainable mobility means using digital tools to change behaviour in ones physical environment – a common example in another area would be your fittness watch or app. In the handbook we transfer this idea on sustainable mobility. For this we explain in a clear manner the basics of behaviour change, how digital tools can help, we give hands-on instructions and provide canvases for your own behavioural interventions for sustainable mobility.

The handbook accompanies a series of webinars on sustainable mobility, see DyMoN Webinar Series for more information.

The handbook can be downloaded for free from

 Unlocking the Potential of Digital, Situation-Aware Nudging for Promoting Sustainable Mobility (Publication)

The context ultimately decides on mobility options and thus shapes mobility behavior. Nudges are an increasingly used strategy for promoting sustainable modes of everyday mobility. However, in most cases, the design of nudges and the triggers for issuing these interventions neglect the user’s specific context and are thus less relevant to the recipient. Digital nudges communicated through mobile devices offer situation awareness, which is facilitated by geographic information systems (GIS). Using the geographic reference as the “primary key” allows for connecting the current location information of recipients with static and real-time environmental data that define the contextual situation. We describe a framework for triggering situation-aware nudges and provide a functional proof-of-concept. Through linking concepts from behavioral economics and psychology with methods from GIS science and Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI), we illuminate new opportunities for promoting sustainable mobility.

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 Digital Behavioural Interventions for Sustainable Mobility: A Review of Behaviour Change Techniques in Mobile Apps (Publication)

The Publication Digital Behavioural Interventions for Sustainable Mobility: A Review of Behaviour Change Techniques in Mobile Apps in The Behavioral Economics Guide 2023 presents a review of 26 urban mobility apps with a focus on the most commonly implemented behaviour change techniques. The conclusion showed that digital interventions could be improved by grounding them in a model of behaviour change. It is further suggested to apply the COM-B model and the related behaviour change technique taxonomy (BCTT v1, Michie et al. 2013) in the field of mobility, followed by examples of how interventions could be designed from a more holistic perspective.

Digital interventions for sustainable mobility behaviour: Gender bias in innovation

For the motivation of more sustainable mobility behaviour, interventions based on behavioural sciences such as psychology and behavioural economics are being used to effectively reduce individual car use. Urban mobility apps offer new opportunities to use digital interventions in a targeted way to promote sustainable mobility behaviour (e.g. bicycling apps) through gamification approaches or motivational methods. We discuss how gender aspects are very rarely considered in the design of such urban mobility apps, both in terms of needs and preferences in mobility behaviour and the effects of digital behavioural interventions, and how these shortcomings leave behind a big group of users. Based on this, we present results from a participatory design with female-only focus groups and conclude by recommendations on how digital interventions for sustainable mobility could be improved to make them more inclusive for female users, but also for people with caretaking roles in families and marginalized groups.

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Year two

Nudging Repository (D2.2a)

This project deliverable presents the DyMoN nudging repository which provides a set of digital behaviour change techniques (i.e., nudges) that are suitable to be used as push notifications for a mobile application in order to motivate sustainable mobility (walking, bicycling, public transport). The deliverable briefly describes the COM-B model as the basic model applied by DyMoN for the digital behaviour change interventions and the design of the nudging repository, and the variables and use of the repository.

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Set of Nudges

This file provides the DyMoN nudging repository that is a set of digital behaviour change techniques (i.e., nudges) which are suitable to be used as push notifications for a mobile application in order to motivate sustainable mobility (walking, bicycling, public transport).

DyMoN Data Hub, Tools and Data Processing Model (D3.1)

This project deliverable describes the DyMoN Data Hub with its data processing model, software architecture and clients, and potential uses for situation-aware nudging. The content consists of the following parts:

Nudge ontologies: ● Situation awareness and its role in nudging approaches ● Rulesets translating the text representation of situation in nudges into data thresholds and conditional statements.

Data processing model: ● Data processing model of the Data Hub defining the steps necessary to acquire and prepare data from its raw state to final information stored in the Data Hub ● Data assessment matrix that identifies data availability and suitability according to information demand for the nudging repository, dashboard, and simulation model ● Data acquisition requirements ● Syntactic interoperability of data that identifies how to join different datasets to generate information.

Software architecture: ● Technical specifications of the Data Hub with its data and nudge repositories, and its API that provides calculated data layers and nudges to the DyMoN API ● Technical specification of the DyMoN API that provides data layers and nudges to external end-clients, such as the citizens’ app and dashboard.

End-clients: ● Functional requirements of the citizens’ app in order to adopt DyMoN framework’s services ● Design of the dashboard for city managers and citizens to monitor mobility-related data and assist in decision-making.

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Data-driven Modeling and Simulation (D3.2)

This project deliverable summarizes the simulation results of mobility simulations in the city of Salzburg, and model results regarding attempts to make a nudging-model out of this. The simulations show the effect of nudging on the time of mobility and the utility cost of this mobility. The report also presents a novel idea regarding a nudging-based utility function that would controllably reward changing from car to bike for travels.

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Year one

Nudging Review (Deliverable 2.1a)

This deliverable describes what is needed in order to design behavioural interventions that encourage people to use more sustainable modes of mobility more often. Such measure are certainly needed, especially in the face of climate change, but reducing car traffic, emissions and noise can also make cities more liveable places. With the wide use and possibilities offered especially by mobile devices, there have been considerable efforts already in the mobility field to change behaviours with digital interventions. However, the efforts are often not as effective as they could be, because many of the interventions in the mobility field operate without any theoretical model of behaviour change. In this deliverable, written by Salzburg Research, we discuss why and how interventions should be firmly rooted in appropriate theories, and for the mobility field, we suggest using an already existing model of behaviour change, the COM-B model developed by Susan Michie and colleagues. The model will serve as a theoretical behaviour change model for the DyMoN project, for designing the set of (digital) behaviour change interventions (“nudging repository”) for encouraging use of sustainable mobility modes, and for informing city representatives on how they can motivate more sustainable mobility within their cities.

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Review of User Needs (Deliverable 2.1b)

The report provides insights from the analyses of user needs, collected through four transnational think tanks with end-user citizens, eleven in-depth interviews with city stakeholders and a workshop on the dashboard design involving five smart city stakeholders.  Based  on  a  co-creation  approach  for  primary  data  collection,  the analysis  presented  in this  report  provides  a  thorough  understanding  of  the  needs, aspirations and expectations of the user groups concerned by the nudging repository and the overall  DyMoN  framework.  Specifically,  the  document  presents  an  overview  of  the  needs expressed  by  end  users  (citizens),  as  well  as  smart  city  mobility  stakeholders  (mobility managers, urban planners and other practitioners in the public mobility sector) from Austria, Germany and Sweden.

The document provides key insights from the analysis of the following three actions led by the DyMoN partners: 1) Four international think tanks (one with female – only participants) led by Ecollective. 2) Eleven  individual  interviews  (with  mobility  managers,  city  representatives,  urban planners) led by Sustainability InnoCenter. 3) A workshop on the smart city dashboard (with five smart city managers from Austria and Germany) led by Trafficon.

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To improve the efficiency of nudging techniques applied in the transition to sustainable mobility: An applied urban study within the transport sector (Master Thesis)

In addition, two students wrote a master’s thesis on the topic of user needs as part of DyMoN. Mehri Fakhri and Rozita Zeinodin were interns at the project partner SustainabilityInnoCenter and completed their master’s thesis at Uppsala University. Since a master’s thesis is also an important contribution to a project in terms of knowledge transfer, this work should also be considered here.

To improve the efficiency of nudging techniques applied in the transition to sustainable mobility – An applied urban study within the transport sector

Ethics of digital, data-based nudges: The need for responsible innovation (Publication)

Digital, data-based nudging is seen as an innovative method for influencing behaviour without threat or banning options. However, concerns have been expressed that it is a paternalistic way of manipulating people into behaviour that even taps into subconscious and automatic decision-making. In light of tailoring nudges with big data for personalization for added effectiveness, ethical problems about privacy of personal data arise. In our contribution, we address these challenges within the framework of responsible innovation. For the field of sustainable mobility, we demonstrate how responsible digital nudges can be designed by incorporating reflexivity and inclusion. We discuss how ethical implications as well as issues of data privacy and use of personal data can be reflected in the design process of data-based nudges, and present results from cocreation workshops that were used to get feedback, improvement and new ideas for nudges. Finally, we give recommendations for designing responsible digital, data-based nudges.

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Citation: Luger-Bazinger, Claudia, Marquez, Rodessa May, Harms, Carlotta, Loidl, Martin, Kaziyeva, Dana, & Hornung-Prähauser, Veronika. (2022). Ethics of digital, data-based nudges: The need for responsible innovation. Proceedings of the XXXIII ISPIM Innovation Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5-8 June 2022.